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Table of contents
The Nebula Award has been awarded to stories in the Science Fiction and Fantasy genre every year since Learn about the winners of the s! What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart. Cart items. Toggle navigation. Note: Cover may not represent actual copy or condition available. Palgrave Macmillan.
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Minimal wear. Log-in or create an account first! Strictly speaking, the limit to welfare programs is not so much a particular figure GDP percentage, rate of expenditure growth, etc. The degree of social consensus, i. From this perspective, three variables are essential:. These three variables give us certain basic criteria which should guide any reform in welfare systems. The social awareness of the need for each welfare program indicates the convenience of:.
For example, it would be useful to distinguish among the following objectives:. In some systems already mature this would imply, quite possibly, a simplification of the scope of partial and often superimposed protection programs. Item b implies that authorities should supply accurate information on the real costs of each program, the distribution of beneficiaries, accurate outcome measures, and a vast etcetera.
Each individual should be aware of the benefits he will obtain from the system, especially the market value of goods and services obtained free of charge or with partial payment, as well as of income transfers. Following this thought, the formal billing for benefits, or of an individual account book for periodically recording benefits generated by individual actions, would be very useful.
Trying to minimize fraud is crucial to reach social legitimization, and should be achieved not only, or primarily, by inspection procedures, but also through an organizational structure which prevents or deters fraud. As an example, cost sharing in pharmaceutical benefits according to different age groups facilitates fraud; that would not arise if established by type of drugs. Or management under budget restrictions of the social agents involved in work inactivity due to illness would eliminate tacit agreements between managers, workers and doctors regarding the rating of work-related disability.
Finally, the degree of effectiveness with which benefits are offered is essential from two points of view. Firstly, greater effectiveness would have a positive influence on society's appraisal of welfare programs. Secondly, if our society is to face a future of budget restrictions, the possibilities of improving the actual level of benefits are based almost exclusively in the cost savings that be brought about without a fall in quality. In short, whoever believes that social protection is indispensable for an adequate functioning of our present economy, must consider an urgent priority the reform of its programs on the following lines:.
As a last resort, all the above implies a basic assumption: the need to consider the programs that are sustainable within the framework of economies with strong budget restrictions, so that the increase in benefits should essentially come from savings derived from an improved efficiency, and only moderately, and for certain economies from eventual increases in real social expenditure. From this perspective, three variables are essential: i Social awareness of the need for each program.
The social awareness of the need for each welfare program indicates the convenience of: a Clearly defining the objectives of each program. For example, it would be useful to distinguish among the following objectives: i Social redistribution programs for minimum income, non-contributory pensions, anti-poverty fight, etc. In short, whoever believes that social protection is indispensable for an adequate functioning of our present economy, must consider an urgent priority the reform of its programs on the following lines: - Protect, in an adequate and balanced manner, those situations which are considered to require protection.
The Uruguay Round and Drugs. General principles.ciastactesra.ga
Non-patentability: biotechnology-based drugs. Non-discrimination clause. Rights conferred: imports. Rights conferred: protection of products through protection of the process. Exceptions to exclusive rights.
- Collecting food and drink books;
Granting of compulsory licences. Grounds for granting compulsory licences. Conditions for granting compulsory licences.
The Future of the Welfare State
Terms of protection. Reversal of the burden of the proof. General grace period. New patentable areas. Protection of existing subject matter. Prior compulsory licences and applications. Pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products. The drive towards normalisation. The empirical framework. The current structure of national markets. The good manufacturing practices GMP and the quality of pharmaceuticals. The significance of the empirical information. Location of and control over production.
A synthesis of the structure of production. What model is the international market heading for? Options for local producers in emerging countries. International trade.
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Expenditure ceilings. Limiting doctors and hospital beds.
Alternatives to in-patient care. Influencing the resource use authorised by doctors. Pharmaceutical prices. A profit control system for Europe? The effectiveness of cost containment measures: potential for further action. Systematic approaches to establishing priorities. Why are health care costs so explosive? Technology assessment and pharmacoeconomics.
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Methodological problems in economic evaluation. Cost benefit analysis. Cost-utility analysis. International cooperation. Making health services more efficient. Evaluation of the reforms.